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Euphydryas cynthia ([Schiffermüller], 1775)   

Name in Tolman & Lewington (1997): Hypodryas cynthia

Range: An European endemic occurring only in the Alps and the two highest mountains of Bulgaria, Rila and Pirin.

Distribution in Bulgaria: Rila and N Pirin at an altitude between 1800 and 2800 m, mostly above 2200 m.

Habitat: Grassy alpine meadows, often among growths of juniper and/or mountain pine.

Bionomics: One generation from July till August. Larval host-plants in the Alps: Plantago and Viola (Tolman & Lewington 1997).

Conservation status: Due to its very limited Bulgarian as well as total range this is in my opinion one of the most interesting butterfly species occurring in Bulgaria. Although not directly threatened at present it has to be treated as vulnerable. IUCN category: Vulnerable. Its inclusion into the Red Data Book of Bulgaria is herewith recommended.